January 27, 2022

Research Article (Preprint): “Refcat: The Internet Archive Scholar Citation Graph”

UPDATED POST (October 19, 2021) The Internet Archive Has Posted on the Release of Refcat: Internet Archive Releases Refcat, the IA Scholar Index of over 1.3 Billion Scholarly Citations

The following research article (preprint) was recently posted on arXiv.


Refcat: The Internet Archive Scholar Citation Graph


Martin Czygan
Internet Archive

Helge Holzmann
Internet Archive

Bryan Newbold
Internet Archive




As part of its scholarly data efforts, the Internet Archive (IA) releases a first version of a citation graph dataset, named refcat, derived from scholarly publications and additional data sources. It is composed of data gathered by the fatcat cataloging project (the catalog that underpins IA Scholar), related web-scale crawls targeting primary and secondary scholarly outputs, as well as metadata from the Open Library project and Wikipedia. This first version of the graph consists of over 1.3B citations.

Source: arxiv.org/abs/2110.06595

We release this dataset under a CC0 Public Domain Dedication, accessible through Internet Archive. The source code used for the derivation process, including exact and fuzzy citation matching, is released under an MIT license. The goal of this report is to describe briefly the current contents and the derivation of the dataset.

Access to Full Text Article

Direct to Refcat Dataset (via Internet Archive)

See Also: Keyword Search IA Scholar

About Gary Price

Gary Price (gprice@mediasourceinc.com) is a librarian, writer, consultant, and frequent conference speaker based in the Washington D.C. metro area. Before launching INFOdocket, Price and Shirl Kennedy were the founders and senior editors at ResourceShelf and DocuTicker for 10 years. From 2006-2009 he was Director of Online Information Services at Ask.com, and is currently a contributing editor at Search Engine Land.