From the National Science Foundation:
In 2017, an estimated 1,103,200 individuals worldwide held a research doctoral degree in a science, engineering, or health (SEH) field that was earned at a U.S. academic institution, an increase of over 55,000 doctorate recipients since 2015. A total of 967,500 (88%) were residing in the United States, and over one-third of them were women (338,400). An additional 135,700 were living abroad, one-fourth (33,700) of whom were women Among those doctorate recipients living outside the United States in 2017, a majority (54%) lived in Asia and nearly 20% lived in Europe (including Russia).
As the number and share of women with U.S.-earned SEH doctorate degrees residing and working in the United States increased over the years, the proportion of women involved in research and development (R&D) as their primary work activity also increased significantly. Persons engaged in R&D activities are employed U.S.-trained SEH doctorate holders who report basic research, applied research, development, or design their primary work activity—that is, more of their hours are spent on an R&D activity during a typical week than on any other work activity. Overall, in 2017, 30% of U.S.-trained SEH doctorate holders performing an R&D activity as their primary work activity were women; in 1997, the proportion was 19% .
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