A new report (R45348; published on October 22, 2018) from the Congressional Research Service (CRS).
In the 114th and 115th Congresses, several bills entitled the Geospatial Data Act were introduced in the Senate and House of Representatives. Congress did not act on legislation introduced in the 114th Congress; however, in September 2018, a version of the bill, the Geospatial Data Act of 2018 (GDA), was included in H.R. 302, the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018, as Subtitle F of Title VII. Congress passed H.R. 302 on October 3, 2018, and President Trump signed it into law on October 5 as P.L. 115-254.
The federal government has recognized the need to organize and coordinate the collection and management of geospatial data since at least 1990. In that year, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) revised Circular A-16—which provides guidance regarding coordination of federal surveying, mapping, and related spatial data activities—to establish the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and to promote the coordinated use, sharing, and dissemination of geospatial data nationwide. Past Congresses have recognized the challenge of coordinating and sharing geospatial data from the local, county, and state level to the national level and vice versa. Until enactment of the GDA, however, the executive branch had led nearly all efforts to better coordinate and share geospatial data within the federal government.
The GDA codifies aspects of OMB Circular A-16, authorizing many of its existing components and modifying or expanding upon other aspects. The GDA continues the FGDC and supports the goal of creating a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), defined in the new law as “the technology, policies, criteria, standards, and employees necessary to promote geospatial data sharing throughout the Federal Government, State, tribal, and local governments, and the private sector (including nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher education).”
The GDA adds a number of congressional oversight components. For example, it adds a requirement for annual performance reporting from each of the federal agencies responsible for a specific geospatial topic (or theme), and it requires the FGDC to conduct a summary and evaluation of each agency in fulfilling the responsibilities listed in the GDA. The annual summaries and evaluations must be made available to the National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC, charged with providing advice and recommendations to the FGDC). Further, the law requires the FGDC to make available to Congress, not less than every two years, a report summarizing and evaluating agency performance, comments from the NGAC, responses to those comments, and responses to comments from the responsible agencies themselves.
One long-standing issue for Congress has been the cost of geospatial activities to the federal government—namely, what it costs to acquire, manage, share, and use geospatial data. To help address that concern, the GDA requires the responsible federal agencies to inventory and assess their geospatial data assets as part of their annual budget submissions. The GDA potentially could illuminate for Congress how each responsible agency budgets for its geospatial activities, which may allow Congress to better evaluate what portion of agency appropriations contributes to the federal geospatial enterprise. This information could enable Congress to query the Director of OMB (the vice-chairperson of the FGDC), about the budgetary implications of agency expenditures on geospatial-related activities in each budget cycle.
Table of Contents
- Background and Legislative History
- Overview of the Geospatial Data Act of 2018
- Section-by-Section Summary and Analysis
- Section 751. Short Title; Findings
- Section 752. Definitions
- Section 753. Federal Geographic Data Committee
- Section 754. National Geospatial Advisory Committee
- Section 755. National Spatial Data Infrastructure
- Section 756. NGDA Data Themes
- Section 757. Geospatial Data Standards
- Section 758. GeoPlatform
- Section 759. Covered Agency Responsibilities
- Section 759A. Limitation on Use of Federal Funds
- Sections 759B and 759C. Savings Provision; Private Sector
- Issues for Congress