May 20, 2022

New Full Text Report: “Drone Sightings and Close Encounters: An Analysis”

From the The Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College:

With the holiday season approaching, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimates that up to one million new drones will be entering U.S. airspace, creating potentially dangerous situations for unmanned and manned aircraft. A new study released today by The Center for the Study of the Drone at Bard College offers a comprehensive examination of incidents involving drones and manned aircraft in the national airspace over the past two years. Using data from the FAA and Department of Interior, the report, “Drone Sightings and Close Encounters: An Analysis,” explores 921 incidents in the national airspace from December 2013 to September 2015. Coauthors Dan Gettinger and Arthur Holland Michel identified 327 close encounters in which drones presented some level of hazard to manned aircraft, 90 of which involved commercial multiengine jets, and 594 sightings, in which drones were spotted near or within manned aircraft flight paths but did not pose immediate danger of collision.


The report presents an analysis of altitude, distance from airports, drone-to-aircraft proximity, manned aircraft type, drone type, and time of day. The study found that incidents were more likely to involve multirotor unmanned aircraft than fixed-wing drones, and predominantly occurred far above the Federal Aviation Administration’s 400-foot ceiling for unmanned aircraft, often within five miles of an airport. In addition to the authors’ findings, the report presents extensive background on the issue and details the potential consequences of a collision between a manned aircraft and a drone. “With more and more drones entering our airspace, ‘Drone Sightings and Close Encounters’ will serve as a reliable resource for policymakers and the industry as they work to develop strategies and solutions to address the growing number of potentially dangerous incidents between manned and unmanned aircraft,” said Gettinger. “Our hope is that this study can help engender a collaborative dialogue among stakeholders working on this issue.”

Direct to Full Text Report: Drone Sightings and Close Encounters: An Analysis
28 pages; PDF.

UPDATE December 14, 2015 FAA Announces Small UAS Registration Rule
See Also: Full Text of FAA UAS Rule (211 pages; PDF)

About Gary Price

Gary Price ( is a librarian, writer, consultant, and frequent conference speaker based in the Washington D.C. metro area. Before launching INFOdocket, Price and Shirl Kennedy were the founders and senior editors at ResourceShelf and DocuTicker for 10 years. From 2006-2009 he was Director of Online Information Services at, and is currently a contributing editor at Search Engine Land.