An Internet research staple, the U.S. Census International Data Base was recently updated with new population estimates and projections for 24 countries. Details below.
The U.S. Census also notes that as of July 1, 2015 the world population reached 7.256 billion.
From the U.S. Census:
In time for World Population Day (July 11), the Census Bureau has released an update of population estimates and projections for 24 countries, including China, Jordan, Malawi, Syria and Ukraine through its International Data Base. The International Data Base contains population estimates and projections to 2050 for 228 countries and areas. Along with total population, characteristics for countries include age structure, fertility and mortality rates, and migration numbers. Additional analyses for some countries have been conducted to include the estimated effects of HIV/AIDS.