May 24, 2022

Journal Article: “Are MOOCs Open Educational Resources? A Literature Review on History, Definitions and Typologies of OER and MOOCs”

The following article was recently published by Open Praxis


Are MOOCs Open Educational Resources? A Literature Review on history, Definitions and Typologies of OER and MOOCs


Christian M. Stracke
Open University of the Netherlands

Stephen Downes
National Research Council (Canada)

Grainne Conole
Independent Consultant (United Kingdom)

Daniel Burgos
Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR), (Spain)

Fabio Nascimbeni
Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR), (Spain)


Open Praxis
Vol. 11, No. 4 (2019)
DOI: 10.5944/openpraxis.11.4.1010
Note: This issue Features Selected Papers from the Open Education Consortium Global 2019 Conference


Open Education gained more visibility as a result of the emergence of Open Educational Resources (OER) and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). This article discusses whether MOOCs should be considered as OER. Open Education and OER can be treated as two strands with different historical roots even though, in theory, OER are an aspect of Open Education. Different OER definitions and typologies are analyzed in relation to their dimensions and categorizations. Furthermore, the four conditions and two original categories of MOOCs are discussed, leading to a debate on their quality. It turns out that there are two perspectives on MOOCs: from an OER perspective, MOOCs as a product can be called OER. From an Open Education perspective, MOOCs are going beyond OER as enablers of Open Education and are understood as an innovative way of changing education. These perspectives are reflected by the OpenEd Quality Framework. The short answer to our leading question is: sometimes, and it depends on your perspective.

Direct to Full Text Article
16 pages; PDF.

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